Planning Approach

  1. Observation
  2. Defining problem exactly
  3. Developing solving alternatives
  4. Choosing optimal solution
  5. Proving optimal solution through implementation
  6. Making correct controlling

System Approach

  1. Analyzing requirements
  2. Identifying system
  3. Formulating problem
  4. Building system alternative
  5. Determining from physical realization
  6. Socio-political and determining economical and financial feasibility

Empirical Approach

  1. Formulating problem
  2. Stating purpose
  3. Analyzing work steps
  4. Choosing treatment
  5. Choosing experiment material
  6. Choosing experiment design
  7. Choosing observation/testing unit
  8. Controlling interaction influence
  9. Determining data
  10. Procedure guide for statistical analysis
  11. Performing experiment
  12. Analyzing data and interpreting result
  13. Writing report


Sumber: Marimin. 2011. Pendekatan dan Tahapan Penelitian [Modul Perkuliahan S2 ILKOM]. FMIPA IPB

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